Publications

Revisiting natural resources in the Middle East and North Africa

  • Type: Book
  • Year of Publication: 2020
  • Author(s): NARBONE, Luigi
  • Citation: Florence : European University Institute, 2020
  • Series/Report no.: Middle East Directions (MED)
  • Abstract: The struggle for natural resources has historically been central in the modern Middle East and North Africa, yet it has also recently contributed to destabilising it. This ebook explores the [...]
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The EU-Tunisian relationship after 2011 : resilience, contestation and the return of the neglected socio-economic question

  • Type: Technical Report
  • Year of Publication: 2020
  • Author(s): NARBONE, Luigi
  • Series/Report no.: Middle East Directions (MED), 2020/18
  • Abstract: With rising socioeconomic problems reigniting popular contestation, Tunisia’s democratic system is under strain. This report critically analyses the EU’s policy responses to Tunisia's transition and evaluates how they have evolved [...]
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The Eighth Brigade : striving for supremacy in Southern Syria

  • Type: Technical Report
  • Year of Publication: 2020
  • Author(s): AL-JABASSINI, Abdullah
  • Series/Report no.: Middle East Directions (MED), 2020/17
  • Abstract: At its core, the patchwork ‘reconciliation’ strategy in southern Syria has demarcated three main zones in which the regime’s authority and therefore the roles former rebels come to play in [...]
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Post-reconciliation rural Damascus : are local communities still represented?

  • Type: Technical Report
  • Year of Publication: 2020
  • Author(s): EZZI, Mazen
  • Series/Report no.: Middle East Directions (MED), Wartime and Post-Conflict in Syria, 2020/16
  • Abstract: Two years on from the Syrian regime’s military recapture of the whole of Rural Damascus, the fates of influential local actors, including communal dignitaries, religious clerics, businessmen, civil society activists [...]
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Salafi politics : 'political' and 'quietist' Salafis in the struggle for the Libyan state

  • Type: Technical Report
  • Year of Publication: 2020
  • Author(s): COLLOMBIER, Virginie
  • Series/Report no.: Middle East Directions (MED), 2020/15, Norwegian Institute of International Affairs
  • Abstract: The academic literature has tended to divide the Salafis into three main categories – jihadi, political and quietist – and has distinguished them in terms of their ideological and methodological [...]
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The Syrian chambers of commerce in 2020 : the rise of a new business elite

  • Type: Technical Report
  • Year of Publication: 2020
  • Author(s): DAHER, Joseph
  • Series/Report no.: Middle East Directions (MED), Wartime and Post-Conflict in Syria, 2020/14
  • Abstract: Two years after the end of their mandates in 2018, the formation of new boards of directors of Syrian chambers of commerce in September and October 2020 shows significant changes [...]
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Syrian people’s council elections 2020 : the regime’s social base contracts

  • Type: Technical Report
  • Year of Publication: 2020
  • Author(s): AWAD, Ziad, FAVIER, Agnès
  • Series/Report no.: Middle East Directions (MED), 2020/13
  • Abstract: In Syria’s context of political authoritarianism, analysis of the People’s Council elections remains crucial to understand how the Syrian regime is reshaping its social base in each of the 15 [...]
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Breaking the cycle : a new American approach to Lebanon

  • Type: Other
  • Year of Publication: 2020
  • Author(s): NOE, Nicholas
  • Series/Report no.: Policy Briefs, 2020/35, Middle East Directions (MED)
  • Abstract: For the last three decades since the near-simultaneous end of the Cold War and the end of the Lebanese civil war, United States (US) policy towards Lebanon has continued to [...]
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Private security companies in Syria : new agents at the regime’s service

  • Type: Technical Report
  • Year of Publication: 2020
  • Author(s): BARESH, Manhal
  • Series/Report no.: Middle East Directions (MED), Wartime and Post-Conflict in Syria, 2020/12
  • Abstract: In 2013, President Bashar al-Assad issued Decree No. 55 licensing private protection and guard service companies. Was the move towards the privatisation of the security sector part of a series [...]
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Between control and repression : the plight of the Syrian labour force

  • Type: Technical Report
  • Year of Publication: 2020
  • Author(s): DAHER, Joseph
  • Series/Report no.: Middle East Directions (MED), Wartime and Post-Conflict in Syria Project, 2020/11
  • Abstract: The most important protagonists in the 2011 Syrian uprising were economically marginalised rural workers, urban employees and self-employed workers. The war and the economic crisis to which it gave rise [...]
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Publications: 10/74