Olivier Roy is Senior Scientific Consultant for the Middle East Directions Programme. Previously he has been senior researcher at the French CNRS and Professor at the EHESS (Paris). He headed the OSCE’s Mission for Tajikistan (1993-94) and was a Consultant for the UN Office of the Coordinator for Afghanistan (1988). Since 2011 he has headed the ERC funded project “ReligioWest”. His research interests include Political Islam, Middle East, Islam in the West and comparative religions. He is presently working on “Islamic norms in the public sphere”, conversions and apostasy, and comparative religions.